I've found some files related to speculatiry in Celestia/shaders. I don't know how to modify them for the desired effects. Is the angle dependency of specular reflection we discussed universal, or specific just for Earth's oceans? I'm thinking of a planet with a smooth icy surface for example.Added after 42 minutes 25 seconds:
Meanwhile, some improvements on atmosphere parameters again. It's a lot of experimenting. I increased Rayleigh scattering and reduced Mie scattering. Mie seems to make Earth grey, absorbing all colors at dawn. I do have a realistic looking sunset now, just a very dark one... I'm still experimenting with the parameters. I also found a solution using less absorption, resulting in a brighter sunset, but no blue twilight.
Regarding a hazy view of Earth, I feel like Celestia's atmosphere render is not gamma-corrected. The rim seems way to bright relative to the center of the planet. Also a major annoyance with these settings is that the atmosphere cut off at ~20km altitude. The Rayleigh-blue halo of the upper atmosphere gets lost.
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Rayleigh [ 0.0052 0.0097 0.0200 ]
Absorption [ 0.0074 0.0058 0.0002 ]
Whole Earth view, and a sunset on the surface. Note that the sun still is above the horizon. I increased the brightness on the right half of that view to better show the colors.